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The image of the Sun in the ultraviolet

Source: www.sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov

EIT (Super high-sensitive ultraviolet scanning telescope) shows the solar atmosphere at several wavelengths and thus shows solar material at different temperatures. The figure corresponds to the temperature about 1.5 million Kelvin.


The magnetic field of the Sun

Source: www.sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov

The image shown is received in the spectrum near Ni and I, line 6788 angstrom. The most remarkable features are sunspots. The image is very similar to how looks the Sun in the visible spectrum (for example, looking at the Sun using a special tinted glass. Remember never to look at the Sun without sunscreen devices!). The image shows the magnetic field in the solar photosphere, with black and white spots showing opposite poles.


X-rays of the Sun (flares)

Source: www.sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov

The data are given from fixed operational satellites for monitoring of the environment (GOES). The diagram shows the flux of solar X-rays (average scores of every 5 minutes) in the pass bands 1-8 Angstrom (0.1-0.8 nm) and 0.5-4 Angstrom (0.05-0.4 nm). From February 2008 information from the second satellite is not available, so there is a loss of data when the satellite is situated in the Earth’s shadow.

Alert signals are given with power E-5 and E-4 based on moment data. Large X-ray emissions cause short-wave interferences on the solar side of the Earth.

Large solar flares are accompanied by powerful solar radio-wave flare events, which can provoke additional interferences when receiving information from satellites.


Parameters of the interplanetary environment near the Earth


Source: www.sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov

Data on the proton flux – satellite GOES-11

Data on the electron flux – satellite GOES-10 and GOES-11

Data on the indexes Hp and Kp – from satellites GOES-12 and GOES-11


Cosmic rays variations

Source: сr0.izmiran.rssi.ru


Source: www.sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov

Variations of galactic cosmic rays (with energies of 10-20 GeV) over the past 30 days, according to the responses of the Moscow neutron monitor. Updated every hour.


The Sunspot Number

Scientists track solar cycles by counting sunspots - cool planet-sized areas on the Sun where intense magnetic loops poke through the star's visible surface.

Counting sunspots is not as straightforward as it sounds. Suppose you looked at the Sun through a pair of (properly filtered) low power binoculars -- you might be able to see two or three large spots. An observer peering through a high-powered telescope might see 10 or 20. A powerful space-based observatory could see even more - say, 50 to 100. Which is the correct sunspot number?

There are two official sunspot numbers in common use. The first, the daily "Boulder Sunspot Number," is computed by the NOAA Space Environment Center using a formula devised by Rudolph Wolf in 1848:

R=k (10g+s),

where R is the sunspot number; g is the number of sunspot groups on the solar disk; s is the total number of individual spots in all the groups; and k is a variable scaling factor (usually <1) that accounts for observing conditions and the type of telescope (binoculars, space telescopes, etc.). Scientists combine data from lots of observatories -- each with its own k factor -- to arrive at a daily value.



Above: International sunspot numbers from 1745 to the present. [more]

Above: International sunspot numbers from 1745 to the present.

The Boulder number (reported daily on SpaceWeather.com) is usually about 25% higher than the second official index, the "International Sunspot Number," published daily by the Solar Influences Data Center in Belgium. Both the Boulder and the International numbers are calculated from the same basic formula, but they incorporate data from different observatories.

As a rule of thumb, if you divide either of the official sunspot numbers by 15, you'll get the approximate number of individual sunspots visible on the solar disk if you look at the Sun by projecting its image on a paper plate with a small telescope.


Asteroids near the Earth

Up to date 241 potentially dangerous asteroids are found.

Астероид
Дата
Расстояние до Земли
Виз.размер
Размер
2011 OJ45
Aug 17
4.6 LD
--
29 m
2009 AV
Aug 22
49.7 LD
--
1.1 km
2003 QC10
Sep 18
50 LD
--
1.2 km
2004 SV55
Sep 19
67.5 LD
--
1.2 km
2007 TD
Sep 23
3.8 LD
--
58 m
2002 AG29
Oct 9
77.1 LD
--
1.0 km
2000 OJ8
Oct 13
49.8 LD
--
2.5 km
2009 TM8
Oct 17
1.1 LD
--
8 m
2011 FZ2
Nov 7
75.9 LD
--
1.6 km
2005 YU55
Nov 8
0.8 LD
--
175 m
1994 CK1
Nov 16
68.8 LD
--
1.5 km
1996 FG3
Nov 23
39.5 LD
--
1.1 km


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